Wallace Stevens:
A Timeline


 1870s | 1880s | 1890s | 1900s | 1910s |
1920s | 1930s | 1940s | 1950s

Year Wallace Stevens (number indicates Stevens' age that year) World/Cultural Events
1879 Wallace Stevens born on October 2 in Reading, PA Zulu War in South Africa, Stalin, Paul Klee, E. M. Forster, Albert Einstein born; Ibsen’s A Doll House produced; Henry George’s Progress and Poverty published
1880 1 Garfield becomes President, Helen Keller born, first electric light, New York streets first lit with electricity, first canned meats
1881 2 Pres. Garfield killed; Chester Arthur becomes President, Dostoevsky, Carlyle, die, James’ Portrait of a Lady published, Picasso, Bartok born, New York population reaches 1.2 million
1882 3 Franklin Delano Roosevelt, Virginia Woolf, James Joyce, Stravinsky born, Darwin, Emerson die, John L. Sullivan becomes Heavyweight Boxing Champion
1883 4 Mussolini, Franz Kafka, Anton Webern, born; Karl Marx, Wagner die; Nietzsche’s Thus Spake Zarathustra published, first skyscraper, Brooklyn Bridge opens
1884 5 Harry S. Truman born, Huckleberry Finn published, Oxford English Dictionary begins publication; steam turbine engine invented, first underground railroad (London)
1885 6 Belgium annexes Congo, Grover Cleveland becomes President, U. S. Grant dies, D. H. Lawrence, Ezra Pound, Sinclair Lewis born, Van Gogh’s "The Potato Eaters" painted, The Mikado produced in London, Pasteur develops rabies vaccine
1886 7 Seurat’s "Sunday Afternoon on the Grande Jatte" painted, Last impressionist exhibition (Paris), Statue of Liberty dedicated, Franz Liszt dies, A.F.L. founded
1887 8 first Sherlock Holmes story, Marc Chagall born
1888 9 Benjamin Harrison becomes President, Bellamy’s Looking Backwards published, Matthew Arnold dies, T. S. Eliot, Eugene O’Neill, T. E. Lawrence, Irving Berlin, Jim Thorpe born, Kodak box camera introduced, Jack the Ripper murders six
1889 10 N. Dakota, S. Dakota, Montana, & Washington become states, Hitler Charlie Chaplin, Martin Heidegger, Cocteau, E. P. Hubble born, Robert Browning dies, Eiffel Tower designed
1890 11 Idaho and Wyoming become states; Charles De Gaulle, Dwight Eisenhower born, Ibsen’s Hedda Gabler produced, Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray, William James’ The Principles of Psychology published, Van Gogh dies, global influenza epidemic, first steel framed building, first motion picture shown in New York
1891 12 Hardy’s Tess of the D’Urbervilles published, Melville, Rimbaud Seurat die, Gauguin settles in Tahiti, Mahler’s Symphony No. 1, Prokofiev born
1892 13 Grover Cleveland again elected President, Walt Whitman, Alfred Lord Tennyson die, Monet begins painting Rouen Cathedral, Tchaikovsky’s The Nutcracker produced, first telephone switchboard
1893 14 Cole Porter born, Tchaikovsky dies, Dvorák’s New World Symphony performed, Henry Ford builds his first car, World Exhibition in Chicago
1894 15 Dreyfuss trial in France, Alduous Huxley born, Edison opens Kinetoscope Parlor, Aubrey Beardsley’s Salome drawings, Lumiere invents cinematograph
1895 16 Rhodesia founded, King George VI, Babe Ruth born, H. G. Wells’ The Time Machine published, Marconi invents radio telegraphy, Pasteur dies, Röentgen discovers x-ray
1896 17 Utah becomes state, John Dos Passos born, William McKinley elected President, Bergson’s Matter and Memory published, Nobel Prizes established, radioactivity discovered, first modern Olympics, Klondike gold rush
1897 18
Enters Harvard
Havelock Ellis’ The Psychology of Sex published, Rousseau’s "The Sleeping Gypsy," Brahms dies, Thomson discovers electron, World Exhibition in Brussels, first Zionist Congress; Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee, Benjamin Whorf born
1898 19 Spanish-American War begins, Bismarck, Gladstone, Lewis Carroll, Stéphane Mallarme die, Bertolt Brecht, Paul Robeson, Ernest Hemingway, Owen Barfield born, Curies discover radium, Paris métro opened
1899 20 Noel Coward, Federico Garcia Lorca born, Wilde’s The Importance of Being Earnest produced, Dewey’s School and Society published, Johann Strauss dies, first magnetic recording of sound
1900 21
Finishes three year program at Harvard
Australia founded, McKinley reelected, Conrad’s Lord Jim, Dreiser’s Sister Carrie, Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams published, Stephen Crane, John Ruskin, Oscar Wilde, Nietzsche die, Thomas Wolfe, Aaron Copeland, Kurt Weill born, first film by Méliés, quantum theory formulated
1901 22
Attends New York Law School
Boxer uprising in China ends, Mann’s Buddenbrooks, Frank Norris’ The Octopus published, Rudolf Steiner founds Anthroposophy, Walt Disney, Enrico Fermi born, Toulouse-Lautrec, Verdi die, Picasso’s "Blue Period" begins, first ragtime jazz in U.S., U.S. Steel founded
1902 23
U.S. acquires control of Panama Canal, Cecil Rhodes dies, Gide’s The Immortalist, James’ The Varieties of Religious Experience published, Steinbeck born, Emile Zola dies, first recording by Caruso
1903 24
Graduates from New York Law School, June 10
Evelyn Waugh born, James’ The Ambassadors published, Whistler, Gauguin, Pissarro die, film The Great Train Robbery released, Wright brothers’ first successful flight, first baseball World Series
1904 25
Admitted to New York State bar; meets Elsie Kachel
Russo-Japanese war begins, Theodore Roosevelt elected President, Graham Greene, Salvador Dali born, Chekhov, Dvorak die, Freud’s The Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Weber’s The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism published, woman arrested in NY for smoking in public
1905 26
first Futurist manifesto, Einstein formulates Special Theory of Relativity, Jules Verne dies
1906 27 Ibsen, Cezanne die, Sinclair’s The Jungle published, Shaw’s Man and Superman opens in NY, Greta Garbo born, Amundsen discovers North Pole, population of New York: 4 million
1907 28 Oklahoma becomes state, Rasputin gains influence over Czar Nicholas II, Kipling wins Nobel Prize for Lit., W. H. Auden born, Mendeleyev dies, Strindberg’s The Ghost Sonata produced, Bergson’s Creative Evolution published, Picasso’s "Demoiselles d’Avignon," first Ziegfeld follies, Pavlov’s discoveries concerning conditioned reflexes, Boy Scouts founded, first comic strip ("Mr. Mutt")
1908 29
Engaged to Elsie Kachel
South Africa established, Taft elected President, Lyndon Johnson, Simone de Beauvoir born, Forster’s A Room With a View published, "Ashcan School" of painting established, Rimsky-Korsakov, Grover Cleveland die, General Motors formed, first Model "T" produced
1909 30
Marries Elsie Kachel on 9/21
Stephen Spender born, first D. W. Griffith film with Mary Pickford, Mahler’s Symphony No. 9, Diaghilev’s "Ballet Russe" performs for the first time, cure for syphilis found, Peary reaches the North pole; Selfridges opens in London
1910 31
Edward VII succeeded by George V, Japan annexes Korea, Mark Twain, Tolstoi, Mary Baker Eddy, William James, Henri Rousseau, Florence Nightingale, Winslow Homer die, "Post-Impressionist" exhibit in Paris, Stravinsky’s The Firebird performed, Halley’s comet appears
1911 32
Stevens’ father dies, July 14
Mexican Civil War ends, Sun Yat-sen elected President of new Chinese Republic, W. S. Gilbert, Wilhelm Dilthey, Gustave Mahler die, Braque paints "Man With the Blue Guitar," Maurice Maeterlinck wins Nobel Prize for Lit., Hans Vaihinger publishes The Philosophy of As If, Amundsen reaches South Pole, Rutherford formulates theory of atomic structure
1912 33
Stevens’ mother dies, July 16
Arizona and New Mexico becomes US states, Woodrow Wilson elected President, August Strindberg dies, Eugen Ionesco born, Poetry: A Magazine of Verse founded, Synge’s Playboy of the Western World produced, Jung publishes The Theory of Psychoanalysis; movie attendance reaches approx. 5,000,000 daily in US, Wilson’s cloud-chamber leads to detection of protons and electrons, "Piltdown Man" found (later proved to be a hoax), Woolworth company founded
1913 34
Attends Armory Show
US federal income tax introduced (16th amendment), Mahatma Gandhi arrested for first time, Richard Nixon, Camus born, Tagore wins Nobel Prize for literature, Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers, Proust’s Remembrance of Things Past (first volume) published, Whitehead and Russell’s Principia Mathematica completed, Goetheanum (headquarters for Anthroposophy) founded in Dornach, Switzerland, "Armory Show" introduces postimpressionism and cubism to New York; Stravinsky’s Rite of Spring performed in Paris; Geiger counter invented, zippers first become popular
1914 35
"Carnet de Voyage" published in Trend
Archduke Ferdinand assassinated; World War I begins, Georg Trakl dies, Joyce publishes Dubliners, Tennessee Williams born, Goddard begins rocketry experiments, Panama Canal opens
1915 36
"Sunday Morning" in Poetry
World War I intensifies, Lawrence’s ishes The Rainbow, Masters’ A Spoon River Anthology published, Arthur Miller, Saul Bellow born, Griffith’s Birth of Nation released, Scriabin dies, Einstein postulates General Theory of Relativity, first transcontinental telephone call, Ford produces one million cars
1916 37
Joins Hartford Accident and Indemnity Company; moves to Hartford in May

Wins $100 prize from Poetry for "Three Travelers Watch a Sunrise"

World War I continues, Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Edwin Arlington Robinson’s The Man Against the Sky published, Henry James, Rasputin, Thomas Eakins die, Dadaist cult in Zurich, Griffith’s Intolerance released, Yehudi Menuhin born, Woodrow Wilson reelected President, Louis Brandeis joins Supreme Court
1917 38 World War I continues, US joins fighting, John Fitzgerald Kennedy born; Mata Hari executed, Sarah Bernhardt begins last tour, Rodin, Buffalo Bill Body die, Communist revolution in Russia
1918 39 World War I comes to an end, Edmund Rostand, Wilfred Owen, Henry Adams, Debussy die, Charles Horton Cooley’s Social Progress, Oswald Spengler’s The Decline of the West (first volume) published, first painting by Joan Miró, The Education of Henry Adams wins Pulitzer Prize, Benjamin Whorf joins the Hartford
1919 40 Theodore Roosevelt, Pierre Auguste Renoir die, first League of Nations meeting in Paris, Anderson’s Winesburg, Ohio, Hesse’s Demian, Mencken’s The American Language published, Edgar Varése conducts New York Symphony’s first concert of modern music, observations of total eclipse of the sun bear out Einstein’s theory of relativity, RCA founded, "Black Sox" baseball bribery scandal
1920 41 US Senate votes against joining League of Nations, Warren G. Harding elected President, Knut Hamsun wins Nobel Prize for Lit., William Dean Howells, Modigliani die, O’Neill wins the Pulitzer Prize for The Emperor Jones, Samuel Alexander’s Space, Time, and Deity, Jung’s Psychological Types, Valery’s Le Cimetiére marin published, The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari released, Wharton’s The Age of Innocence wins Pulitzer Prize for fiction, first performance of Holst’s The PlanetsAnatole France wins Nobel Prize for Lit., Lawrence publishes Women in Love, Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of an Author produced, Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logicus Philosophicus published, chromosome theory of heredity first proposed, BBC founded, Saccho and Vanzetti found guilty of murder, William Howard Taft becomes Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Saint-Saëns dies
1921 42
The Hartford moves to its new bulding on Asylum Ave.
Anatole France wins Nobel Prize for Lit., Lawrence publishes Women in Love, Pirandello’s Six Characters in Search of an Author produced, Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logicus Philosophicus published, chromosome theory of heredity first proposed, BBC founded, Saccho and Vanzetti found guilty of murder, William Howard Taft becomes Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Saint-Saëns dies
1922 43
T. S. Eliot’s The Waste Land, Joyce’s Ulysses, Rilke’s Duino Elegies and Sonnets to Orpheus published, Marc Chagall leaves Russia for Paris, Flaherty completes Nanook of the North, Proust dies
1923 44
Harmonium published by Knopf; on October 18, the Stevenses sail from New York on a cruise to California, returning in December (Holly conceived on trip)
Teapot Dome Scandal, Hitler’s "Beer Hall Putsch" fails, William Butler Yeats wins Nobel Prize for Lit., Robert Frost’s New Hampshire, e. e. cummings’ The Enormous Room, Le Corbusier’s Toward a New Architecture, Martin Buber’s I and Thou published, Gershwin’s Rhapsody in Blue performed, process for sound motion pictures developed, Messerschmitt aircraft factory opens, Pres. Harding dies, succeeded by Calvin Coolidge, Katherine Mansfield dies
1924 45
Holly Bright Stevens born, August 10 (Elsie is 38 years old)
Lenin, Franz Kafka, Woodrow Wilson, Louis Sullivan, Joseph Conrad die, Shaw’s Back to Methusaleh, Forster’s A Passage to India, Freud’s Collected Writings published, Gandhi conducts 21 day fast, Calvin Coolidge elected President, René Clair’s film Entracte andLéger’s Ballet Méchanique released, J. Edgar Hoover becomes Director of the F.B.I., first use of insecticides, 25 million radios in use in US
1925 46 Sun Yat-sen, William Jennings Bryan, Amy Lowell, Rudolf Steiner, Erik Satie die, Dreiser’s An American Tragedy, Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby, Hemingway’s In Our Time published, Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin released, solar eclipse in New York, Scopes "Monkey" trial
1926 47 Queen Elizabeth II born, Hirohito becomes Japanese Emperor, Eugene V. Debs, Rainer Maria Rilke, Claude Monet, Luther Burbank, Harry Houdini die, Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises, Kafka’s The Castle, Milne’s Winnie the Pooh published, Lang’s Metropolis released, first liquid fuel rocket, first 16 mm movie camera made by Kodak
1927 48 Bergson wins Nobel Prize for Lit., Hesse’s Steppenwolf, Traven’s The Treasure of the Sierra Madre, Freud’s The Future of an Illusion published, The Jazz Singer in movie theatres, Woolf’s To the Lighthouse published, Lindbergh crosses the Atlantic, Babe Ruth hits 60 home runs
1928 49 Chang Kai-Shek becomes President of China, Thomas Hardy dies, Lawrence’s Lady Chatterly’s Lover published, first Mickey Mouse films, Gershwin’s An American in Paris, Ravel’s Bolero performed, Toscanini becomes conductor of New York Philharmonic, penicillin discovered, first scheduled TV broadcast, Amelia Earhart flies the Atlantic, Herbert Hoover elected President
1929 50 Trotsky expelled from USSR, Hemingway’s A Farewell to Arms, Lewis’ Dodsworth, Remarque’s All Quiet on the Western Front, Woolf’s A room of One’s Own, Wolfe’s Look Homeward Angel, Faulkner’s The Sound and the Fury published, first "talkies," Museum of Modern Art opens in NY, US Stock Exchange collapses, St. Valentine’s Day Massacre
1930 51 William Howard Taft, D. H. Lawrence die, Nazis gain 107 seats in German election, Hart Crane’s The Bridge, Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying, published, Blue Angel released, development of cyclotron, Pluto discovered, building of Maginot line begins, Wood’s American Gothic painted
1931 52 Jane Addams wins Nobel Peace Prize, Robert Frost wins Pulitzer Prize for Collected Poems, Vachel Lindsay, Thomas Alva Edison, Anna Pavlova die, Frankenstein in movie theatres, Capone jailed for income tax evasion
1932 53
Move to Westerly Terrace, Hartford
Hitler wins 11 million votes in German election, Roosevelt elected President, John Galsworthy wins Nobel Prize for Lit., Alexander Calder exhibits mobiles, Shirley Temple’s first film, Schönberg’s Moses and Aaron premieres, Heisenberg wins Nobel Prize for physics, Lindbergh baby kidnapped, Roosevelt speaks of "New Deal," Hart Crane dies,
1933 54 Calvin Coolidge, Ring Lardner die, Hitler becomes German Chancellor, first aircraft carrier launched, first concentration camps erected, Lorca’s Blood Wedding produced, Malraux’s La Condition Humaine, Jung’s Modern Man in Search of a Soul, Stein’s The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas published, Garbo stars in Queen Christina, positrons discovered, Thomas Hunt Morgan wins Nobel Prize for study of chromosomes
1934 55
Becomes Vice-President of the Hartford, head of the bonding Division
Fitzgerald’s Tender is the Night, Toynbee’s A Study of History, Carnap’s Logical Syntax of Language, Ezra Pound’s ABC of Reading published, It Happened One Night in movie theatres, Gustave Holst dies, first volume of F.B.I. kills John Dillinger
1935 56
Ideas of Order published by Alcestis Press
Eliot’s Murder in the Cathedral, Sinclair Lewis’ It Can’t Happen Here published, 39 Steps in movie theatres, Alban Berg dies, Gershwin’s Porgy and Bess produced, Curies win the Nobel Prize for chemistry, Rhumba becomes the fashionable dance
1936 57
Owl’s Clover published by Alcestis Press; reads "The Irrational Element in Poetry" at Harvard, 12/8
Spanish Civil War begins, Roosevelt re-elected President, Dale Carnegie publishes How to Win Friends and Influence People, Gone with the Wind wins the Pulitzer Prize, Rudyard Kipling, A. E. Housman, Luigi Pirandello, Maxim Gorki, Garcia-Lorca, Miquel de Unamuno, Ottorino Respighi, Ivan Pavlov die, Modern Times, Mr. Deeds Goes to Town in movie theatres, Boulder Dam completed, BBC television begins. Hauptman convicted of kidnapping & killing Lindbergh baby
1937 58
The Man With the Blue Guitar published by Knopf.
George VI become king of Great Britain, Spanish Civil War rages on, Dos Passos’ U.S.A. trilogy, Sartre’s La Nausée, Karen Horney’s The Neurotic Personality in Our Time, Renoir’s La Grande Illusion released, George Gershwin, Edith Wharton die, Orff’s Carmina Burina performed, dirigible Hindenburg explodes, Duke of Windsor marries Wallis Simpson
1938 59
Reads "The Noble Rider and the Sound of Words" at Princeton on 5/8
Japanese occupy China, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings’ The Yearling wins Pulitzer Prize, Johann Huizinga publishes Homo Ludens, Bela Bartók’s Violin Concerto performed, Thomas Wolfe, Edmund Husserl, Clarence Darrow die
1939 60 Joyce publishes Finnegans Wake, William Butler Yeats, Ford Maddox Ford die, DDT synthesized, first helicopter constructed, Gone with the Wind, The Wizard of Oz in movie theatres
1940 61 British forces evacuated from Dunkirk, London blitz begins, Trotsky assassinated, Roosevelt elected to third term as President, Adler’s How to Read a Book, Hemingway’s For Whom the Bell Tolls, Richard Wright’s Native Son published, F. Scott Fitzgerald, Nathanael West, Paul Klee die, Grapes of Wrath, Fantasia in movie theatres
1941 62 Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, US enters World War II, Louis Brandeis, Sherwood Anderson, James Joyce, Virginia Woolf, Henri Bergson. Lou Gehrig die, Citizen Kane in movie theatres, Manhattan Project begins, Joe DiMaggio hits safely in 56 consecutive games, Benjamin Whorf dies at 43
1942 63
Notes Toward a Supreme Fiction published by Cummington Press. Parts of a World published by Knopf.
World War II continues, Eliot’s Four Quartets, Camus’L’Étranger published, Thorton Wilder’s The Skin of Our Teeth produced, George M. Cohan, John Barrymore, Franz Kafka die, To Be or Not to Be in movie theatres, first electronic computer developed in the US, first jet airplane tested
1943 64
Reads "The Figure of the Youth as Virile Poet" at Mount Holyoke
World War II continues, Martha Graham dances Deaths and Entrances, first one-man show by Jackson Pollock, Casablanca wins Oscar for best picture, Chaim Soutine, George Washington Carver, Nikola Tesla, Rachmaninoff die, Penicillin proves successful
1944 65
"The Figure of the Youth as Virile Poet" publishes in Sewanee Review; Holly Stevens marries John Martin Hanchak on 8/5
World War II continues, D-Day invasion, Dumbarton Oaks Conference, Roosevelt elected President for fourth term, Williams’ The Glass Menageries, Sartre’s No Exit produced, Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, Wassily Kandindsky, Piet Mondrian, Edvard Munch die, Copeland’s Appalachian Spring wins Pulitzer Prize
1945 66
Elected to National Institute of Arts and Letters; Esthétique du Mal published by Cummington Press.
World War II ends, Yalta Conference, Pres. Roosevelt dies, Harry S. Truman becomes President, Hitler commits suicide, Mussolini killed, US drops atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Nuremberg trials begin, Gen. George S. Patton, Paul Valery, Ernst Cassirer, Käthe Kollwitz, Anton von Webern, Bella Bartok die, Hesse’s Glass-Bead Game published, The Lost Weekend in movie theatres
1946 67
First United Nations General Assembly, Juan Peron becomes President of Argentina, Churchill gives his "Iron Curtain" speech, Nuremberg trials completed, Warren’s All the King’s Men wins Pulitzer, Gertrude Stein, W. C. Fields, John Maynard Keynes, Alfred Stieglitz die, Hermann Hesse wins Nobel Prize for Lit., The Best Years of Our Lives in movie theatres
1947 68
Reads "Three Academic Pieces" at Harvard on 2/11; Transport to Summer published by Knopf; "Three Academic Pieces" published by Partisan Review; Three Academic Pieces published by Cummington Press; grandson, Peter Reed Hanchak born in April.
Plans made for partition of Palestine and formation of Israel, India and Pakistan become independent nations, Taft-Hartley act published, Willa Cather, Alfred North Whitehead, Max Planck, Henry Ford, Al Capone die, flying saucer reports rampant in US, Camus’ The Plague, Mann’s Doctor Faustus published, Williams’ A Streetcar Named Desire wins Pulitzer Prize, André Gide wins Nobel Prize for Lit.
1948 69
Reads "Effects of Analogy" at Yale March 18 and at Mount Holyoke on April 2; reads "Imagination as Value" at Columbia on September 10; "One of Marianne Moore’s Poems" published in Quarterly Review of Literature; "Effects of Analogy" published in Yale Review. 
Gandhi assassinated, Marshall Plan enacted, Harry S. Truman elected President, Mailer’s The Naked and the Dead published, T. S. Eliot wins Nobel Prize for Lit., The Bicycle Thief released, D. W. Griffith, Ruth Benedict, Babe Ruth die, Joe Lewis retires, long-playing record patented, Mount Palomar telescope dedicated
1949 70
"Imagination as Value" published in English Institute Essays. 
People’s Republic of China formed--Mao Tse-Tung first Premier, NATO formed, Orwell’s 1984 published, Miller’s The Death of a Salesman produced (wins Pulitzer Prize), James Ensor, Richard Strauss die, USSR tests first atomic bomb, Apartheid established in South Africa
1950 71
Wins Bollingen Prize in Poetry; The Auroras of Autumn published by Knopf.
Chiang Kai-Shek becomes President of Nationalist China, Senator Joseph McCarthy denounces communists in the State Department, Korean War begins, George Bernard Shaw, Edgar Rice Burroughs, Edna St. Vincent Millay, Kurt Weill, first appearance of "cool jazz," plutonium developed, Einstein’s General Field Theory, die, Bertrand Russell wins Nobel Prize for Lit.
1951 72
The Necessary Angel published by Knopf; wins The National Book Award (for Auroras of Autumn); reads "The Relations Between Poetry and Painting" at the Museum of Modern Art; reads "A Collect of Philosophy" at the University of Chicago on Nov. 16 and at City College of New York on Nov. 26; Holly Stevens divorced on Sept. 25.
22nd Amendment passed, Frost’s Complete Poems, Salinger’s The Catcher in the Rye published, Wouk’s The Caine Mutiny wins Pulitzer Prize, Sinclair Lewis, Harold Ross, Leadbelly, William Randolph Hearst die, The African Queen, Streetcar Named Desire in movie theatres
1952 73 Eisenhower elected President, Albert Schweitzer wins Nobel Peace Prize, Hemingway’s The Old Man and the Sea, Ralph Ellison’s The Invisible Man published, Marianne Moore’s Collected Poems wins Pulitzer Prizes, Peale’s The Power of Positive Thinking published, Beckett’s Waiting for Godot produced, High Noon in movie theatres, US tests hydrogen bomb, George Santayana, Benedetto Croce die
1953 74
Selected Poems published by Faber and Faber in England.
Tito become President of Yugoslavia, Stalin, Dylan Thomas, Raoul Dufy die, USSR explodes hydrogen bomb, Mount Everest first climbed, Dag Hammarskjöld becomes Secretary-General of United Nations, Queen Elizabeth II crowned, Arthur Miller’s The Crucible produced, Bellow’s The Adventures of Augie March, MacLeish’s Collected Poems, de Beauvoir’s The Second Sex, the Kinsey Report published, Rosenbergs executed, Korean armistice signed
1954 75
Reads "The Whole Man: Perspectives, Horizons" at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Oct. 21; Collected Poems published by Knopf.
Nasser seizes power in Egypt; Brown vs. Board of Education, Colette, Matisse, Charles Ives die, Senator McCarthy censured, Robert Oppenheimer dismissed from government service, first nuclear-powered submarine, Hemingway wins Nobel Prize for Lit., Huxley’s The Doors of Perception, Tolkien’s The Lord of the Rings published, Williams’ Cat on a Hot Tin Roof and Roetke’s The Waking win Pulitzer Prizes for drama and poetry
1955 Wins National Book Award and Pulitzer Prize for Poetry (for Collected Poems). Wallace Stevens dies on August 2. Churchill resigns. A.F.L. and C.I.O. merge, Montgomery bus boycott, Paul Claudel, James Agee, Ortega y Gasset, Maurice Utrillo, Charlie Parker, Albert Einstein die, Nabokov’s Lolita, Sloan Wilson’s The Man in the Gray Flannel Suit, Rudolf Flesch’s Why Johnny Can’t Read published, first use of atomic power
1957 Opus Posthumous first published